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Quatermodel isothiuronium surfactants and the cross sections of hair treated with ...

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Schmiedel Dept VTR- Physical Chemistry, Henkel KGa A, Henkelstrasse 67, 40191 Dusseldorf, Germany P. Slater Shield Consulting, 17 Oregon Walk, Wokingham, Berkshire RG40 4PG, UK xii Contributors R. Thomas OMNOVA Solutions Inc., 2990 Gilchrist Road, Akron, OH 44305-4418, USA W.

Chapter 1 covers the development of the industry and elaborates on the importance of surfactants in modern day living and the very many areas where they find application.

Surfactants are generally classified by ionic types which relate to their chemical structure and are described as anionic, non-ionic, cationic and amphoteric.

Aug 4, 2014 - The effect of ILs [Cnmim]Cl and [Cnmim]PF6 (with n = 4, 8, and 12) and ... Jun 27, 2006 - Particle Engineering Research Center, Center for Surface Science ... For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our Web site: Contributors xi Preface xiii Glossary xv 1 2 What Are Surfactants?

DSC analysis shows separate conformational transitions for the two gellan .... Automotive manufacture is the second important application. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards.

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Ce is the concentration of surfactant in the liquid phase after the equilibrium is reached,. Chemistry and Technology of Surfactants Edited by Richard J. ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-2696-0 (acid-free paper) ISBN-10: 1-4051-2696-5 (acid-free paper) 1. Fred Gadberry 6.1.1 Introduction and background 6.1.2 Manufacturing processes 6.1.3 Applications of cationic surfactants 6.1.4 Industrial applications of cationic surfactants References 6.2 Amphoteric surfactants Richard Otterson 6.2.1 Introduction 6.2.2 Aminopropionates and Iminodipropionates 6.2.3 Imidazoline-based amphoteric surfactants 6.2.4 Betaine surfactants 6.2.5 Other amphoteric surfactants 6.2.6 Summary References 153 153 153 153 156 165 166 170 170 170 172 180 184 185 185 viii 7 Contents 6.3 Silicone surfactants Randal M.

illustration of the heptane/[C12mim]Cl/water system. reaches a certain critical magnitude (which we call the “barrier”,. Karsa 1.1.1 Introduction 1.1.2 Properties and other criteria influencing surfactant choice 1.1.3 Surfactant applications 1.1.4 Conclusion Appendix: Application guide 1.2 Surfactant market overview: importance in different industries Joel Houston 1.2.1 Introduction 1.2.2 Consumer 1.2.3 Industrial 1 1 1 3 5 7 8 14 14 14 21 The Basic Theory Hatice Gecol 2.1 Molecular structure of surfactants 2.2 Surface activity 2.2.1 Surface tension 2.2.2 Interfacial tension 2.2.3 Surface and interfacial tension reduction 2.2.4 Test methods for surface and interfacial tension measurements 2.3 Self-assembled surfactant aggregates 2.3.1 Micelles and critical micelle concentration 2.3.2 Aggregate structures and shapes 2.4 Adsorption of surfactants at surfaces 2.4.1 Adsorption at liquid–gas and liquid–liquid interfaces 2.4.2 Adsorption at liquid–solid interface 24 24 26 26 28 28 31 32 33 35 38 38 39 vi 3 4 Contents Acknowledgement References 43 43 Applied Theory of Surfactants Peter Schmiedel and Wolfgang von Rybinski 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Detergency 3.2.1 Fundamental processes 3.2.2 Basic formulae of detergents and cleansers 3.2.3 Adsorption at the solid–liquid interface 3.2.4 Surface tension and wetting 3.2.5 Interplay of surfactants with other detergent ingredients 3.3 Phase behaviour of surfactants 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Surfactant phases 3.3.3 Impact of the phase behaviour on detergency 3.4 Emulsions 3.4.1 Introduction 3.4.2 Emulsion types 3.4.3 Breakdown of emulsions 3.5 Foaming and defoaming 3.5.1 Introduction 3.5.2 Stabilising effects in foams 3.5.3 Correlation of foamability with interfacial parameters 3.5.4 Foam control 3.6 Rheology of surfactant solutions 3.6.1 Introduction 3.6.2 Rheological terms 3.6.3 Rheological behaviour of monomeric solutions and non-interacting micelles 3.6.4 Entanglement networks of rod-like micelles 3.6.5 The rheological behaviour of bilayer phases References 46 46 47 47 48 48 54 60 62 62 62 66 69 69 70 74 76 76 77 78 81 82 82 83 Anionic Surfactants John Hibbs 4.1 Sulphonates 4.1.1 Alkylbenzene sulphonates 4.1.2 α-Olefin sulphonates 4.1.3 Paraffin sulphonates 4.1.4 Sulphonated methyl esters 4.1.5 Sulphonated fatty acids 4.1.6 Sulphosuccinates 4.2 Sulphates 4.2.1 Alkyl sulphates 4.2.2 Alkyl ether sulphates 4.3 Phosphate esters 83 84 86 88 91 92 93 102 104 106 108 110 113 113 118 122 Contents vii 4.4 Carboxylates 4.4.1 Soap 4.4.2 Ether carboxylates 4.4.3 Acyl sarcosinates 4.4.4 Alkyl phthalamates 4.4.5 Isethionates 4.4.6 Taurates References 124 124 126 127 128 129 130 132 5 Non-ionic Surfactants Paul Hepworth 5.1 Introduction 5.2 General alkoxylation reactions 5.3 Alkyl phenol ethoxylates 5.4 Fatty alcohol ethoxylates 5.5 Polyoxethylene esters of fatty acids 5.6 Methyl ester ethoxylates 5.7 Polyalkylene oxide block co-polymers 5.8 Amine ethoxylates 5.9 Fatty alkanolamides 5.10 Amine oxides 5.11 Esters of polyhydric alcohols and fatty acids 5.12 Glycol esters 5.13 Glycerol esters 5.14 Polyglycerol esters 5.15 Anhydrohexitol esters 5.16 Polyoxyalkylene polyol esters 5.17 Alkyl poly glucosides 5.18 Gemini surfactants References 133 133 133 135 136 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 146 146 147 148 149 150 151 6 Other Types of Surfactants 6.1 Cationics J.

“green” chemistry has led to an amazing interest in these organic salts.3,4 ILs ..... Force/distance curves for silicon nitride tip/flat silica or alumina coated by a layer of .... 1.1 History and applications of surfactants David R.

Hibbs Mclntyre Limited, Holywell Green, Halifax West Yourkshire, HX4 9DL. Houston R M Hill Dow Corning Corporation, ATVB Materials Science, 2200 W Salzburg Road, Midland, MI 18686, USA J.