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Their adherents everywhere belong of course to the Western portion.

Outwardly, the bond of a common language and common liturgy is often the essential and radical division of a schism.

Indeed these Eastern Catholic bodies in many cases still faintly reflect the divisions of their schismatical relations.

The division of Eastern and Western Churches, then, in its origin corresponds to that of the empire.

We have now a general criterion by which to answer the question: What is an Eastern Church?

An accident of political development has made it possible to divide the Christian world, in the first place, into two great halves, Eastern and Western.

The root of this division is, roughly and broadly speaking, the division of the Roman Empire made first by Diocletian (284-305), and again by the sons of Theodosius I (Arcadius in the East, 395-408; and Honorius in the West, 395-423), then finally made permanent by the establishment of a rival empire in the West (Charlemagne, 800).

In faith a Catholic Armenian, for instance, is joined to Catholic Chaldees and Copts, and has no more to do with the schismatical Armenians than with Nestorians or Abyssinians. He knows quite well that he is a Catholic in union with the Pope of Rome, and that he is equally in union with every other Catholic.