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Given that amount of data, the potential exists to answer questions about the safety and effectiveness of drugs in a way that can not be replicated in clinical trials.

His challenge is to make sense of the 7,000 to 30,000 data points for each brain tumor sample. Bremer uses Clementine, a data mining workbench from SPSS Inc., which enables him to quickly analyze this voluminous amount of data in different ways, and identify patterns and relationships. Bremer combined his own data with that of a publicly available data set resulting in a total of 133 tumor samples from the six major pediatric brain tumor types.

Clementine classified these tumors with greater than 95 percent accuracy. Bremers and other researchers work, types of pediatric brain tumors can be more accurately diagnosed, and the life expectancy for children with brain tumors has grown from five months to 39 months The ability to predict biological activity based on molecular structure is leading researchers to breakthroughs in the most complex challenges of medicine.

Furthermore...carcinogenic activity for a new chemical can be predicted without the need to obtain the non-structural information from laboratory bioassays.

Hence, the results may be expected in a more economical and timely fashion, while also reducing reliance on the use of laboratory animals.

A second round of the challenge (PTE2) [1999] consists of predicting the outcome for 30 chemical bioassays for carcinogenesis... The rules obtained by STEPS using structural information only, are comparable in terms of accuracy to those obtained using both structural and non-structural information by all PTE2 participants.

The data provided includes both structural [atoms and bonds making up the molecules] and non-structural [short term toxicity assays] information. Provided a sufficiently expressive representation language, good solutions may be obtained from the structural information only. In addition, this approach may produce insights into the underlying chemistry of carcinogenicity, one of the principal aims of the PTE2 challenge.

Recently, the company has received FDA approval for a new treatment called Viagra, the first oral treatment for this condition. The research resulted in the development ofthe International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)this questionnaire is a self-administered, 15-item measure that is cross culturally valid and psychometrically sound Pfizer led a worldwide market research effortto determine the IIEFs usability The overall findings indicated that an abbreviated version of the IIEF would further increase acceptance by doctors and patients Pfizer then tasked its researchers to use proven statistical methods to reduce the 15-item IIEF to five questions that would conform to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) definition of ED2The SHIM: IIEF-5 was developed using data from four major studies of men diagnosed with ED and two control samples of men without a history of ED.

Pfizer awarded an ED research grant to a team led by Dr. The data were analysed using CART and logistic regression methodologies in concert.

CART was used to rate the relative importance of each of the IIEFs 15 items in terms of their ability to discriminate between the presence and absence of ED. Cappelleri and his Pfizer colleagues found firm agreement between the CART results and the NIH definition of ED.

The next step after selecting the questions was to develop a scoring system that would be easy to administer. Cappelleri wanted to determine a cut-off point in which men scoring at that point or lower on the SHIM: IIEF-5 could be classified as having ED, while men scoring higher could be classified as having normal erectile functionality. Cappelleri then used CART to develop a scoring system to determine an objective SHIM: IIEF-5 score that gave a high level of sensitivity (high probability of correctly identifying ED) and specificity (high probably of correctly identifying men without ED).

Danter look for existing drugs to battle diseases like HIV, as well as to develop potential new medications. The system correctly classified more than 96% of the molecules. Danter has also used CART in developing models to study central nervous system receptors, anti-arthritic medications, and antibiotics, among others.